Hello, guys welcome to another fresh article, in this article I will come with diabetes mellitus type 2. so guys let’s get started.
In this article we're going to talk about diabetes pathophysiology This is an overview specifically focusing on diabetes mellitus type 2.
|Diabetes mellitus type 2|
diabetes mellitus type 2 :
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a problem where the hormone insulin which is normally secreted by the pancreas does not actually work properly. The pancreas is an Oregon sitting behind the stomach and secretes many things for digestion but also it produces and secretes hormones, which are very important for metabolic.
one of these hormones is insulin which is produced in response to high blood glucose. An example is after we eat glucose enters our blood and then here it will stimulate the pancreas to produce insulins.
Back to Content ↑
If we're continuing on with the pathophysiology of Diabetes we actually need to understand what normally happens and how insulin works in a normal scenario so again here is the circulation here is the liver and here is the pancreas is the Oregon that produces insulin and here is the adipose tissue fact basically and here is the muscle cells skeletal muscles and on these Oregon's on the cells of these organs there are receptors for insulin.
So again, high blood glucose will stimulate insulin production an insulin release from the pancreas the insulin or then target these different organs by binding on to insulin receptors or insolence. Sensitive proteins with the sole purpose of decreasing blood glucose levels the binding of insulin to its receptor or protein.
triggers a cascade of events within cell leading to the increased uptake of glucose from circulation into this is done, for example, by producing more glucose channels or transporters on the surface of cells, allowing glucose to move from the blood into the cells of the organs.
Insulin also promotes glucose storage in the liver. Insulin stimulates black colleges and glycol Genesis to store glucose as glycogen. Insulin also stimulates glucose to be stored as fat which will be subsequently transported to adipose tissue.
So going back to our first diagram, remember high blood glucose stimulates insulin release in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, there is insulin resistance which means that the receptors insulin works on usually does not actually work properly or as effectively. And so insulin essentially does not work properly on the liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.
And as a result, there will be high blood glucose levels for longer periods of time. Now, insulin resistance occurs because of a number of a variety of factors including genetics, family predisposition, bad eating habits, and also obesity.
So because of insulin resistance, glucose cannot be taken up by all these different organs and so you have high blood glucose. There is high blood glucose. The pancreas is told to secrete more insulin despite not changing the fact that insulin sensitivity is present with high blood glucose. The glucose will travel to the kidneys and be secreted out. This is called glucose, urea glucose.
urea will result in osmotic diarrhea sayoes that mean? Well, glucose will essentially drag water with it because it is a solid and so the person will stop peeing more Holly urea with console constant poly urea you get lots of water and you get loss of electrolytes. The loss of water and the loss of electrolyte leads to two main things. One dehydration because of the loss of water and to hyper or smaller state.
A smaller state is a medical emergency which will not be really discussed here.
The dehydration will stimulate the brain to drink more water so we get Polly dip sia. insulin resistance can actually lead to poly Phaedra.
which means the urge to eat more or the feeling of hunger. And how does this happen? Well, if there is high blood glucose and it doesn't go into the tissues that needed though, the Oregon will say, I'm not receiving enough food feed me and so you get Polly Phaedra.
Prolonged dehydration in serious cases can lead to renal failure because of the decrease of blood flow going to the kidneys. remember that insulin has many functions in the liver and because of insulin resistance glucose is not stored properly and.
Instead, you can get the opposite you can get the liver actually releasing more glucose in the attempt to supply the organs that needed.
It is important to know that with prolonged insulin resistance eventually the cells in the pancreas that produces insulin called a beta cells, these beta cells will atrophy because the body is not responding to the insulin properly.
And so this will further cause problems and the person the person who has diabetes will eventually need to be on insulin injections to compensate.
We hope this article helped you understand diabetes mellitus type 2.
So if you like this information, hopefully, have a little better understanding of diabetes mellitus type 2. And share this with friends and family or anyone who needs this information and as always, have a wonderful day.
Full article on - Diabetes mellitus
Also read this previous articles