Hello, In this article we're going to talk about diabetic ketoacidosis. This is an introduction and overviews it is important to know that diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency especially in type one diabetic.
|Diabetic ketoacidosis - diabetic ketoacidosis definition|
patients, but it is known that it can also occur in type two diabetes. As the name suggests. it has to do with acidity, so there's increasing acidity in the blood. Essentially the signs and symptoms of diabetic Ketoacidosis is nausea vomiting, Polly Dipsy, a weight loss hyperventilation, known as whose mouth breathing
now diabetic, the key to us a dose doesn't occur out of the blue, there's usually some triggers and these triggers these etiologies. It can be remembered as The Five Eyes are section intoxication, inappropriate withdrawal of insulin infarction and intercurrent illness and these five triggers, state, which is under biochemistry.
anyways, the pancreas normally produces insulin. However, in diabetes type one, there is an autoimmune attack on the B cells, which normally produce insulin, and therefore insulin is not being produced anymore. So we have a decrease in insulin. Insulin is an important hormone.
And because we have a decrease in insulin, this causes some problems First, it means that there it means that glucose, Neo Genesis is not inhibited. And so we get glucose, Neo Genesis, we get more production of glucose, we also get increased glycogen, a license and we get a decreased English courses, all of which will result in more glucose in the blood.
So we get hyperglycaemic hypoglycemia, resulting glucose being paid out. So we get glucose, urea glucose draws water, so we get polyurea. And we also get dehydration as a result. Because we lose a lot of water and we are dehydrated, we get Polly Dipsy we get thirsty.
It's also important to know that the decrease in insulin, the absence of insulin means that fat breakdown occurs. It's a very important concept to understand fat breakdown occurs, especially if the body is not receiving enough energy. So in periods of infection or feeling ill.
the body will start breaking down the fat because glucose is not present. And because glucose is not being taken up fats are getting broken down from adipose tissue to form three fatty acids, which then go to the liver and undergo keto Genesis to make more ketone bodies. It does this because the body needs some form of energy, some form of supply because glucose is not working, or because glucose is not present.
With so many ketones being made, we get ketone EMEA we get high ketones in the blood, and then subsequently, this means that we get ketone urea, we are paying out ketones, and it's also important to know that ketones are acidic. ketones are acids, and so they reduce the pH in the blood. But also they will reduce the pH in the urine.
This is the main path of is we see in decades. So if a person presents with the signs and symptoms, we spoke of a thorough history and examination needs to be done, and appropriate management needs to be performed, which includes checking the airways, checking, reading, and circulation in circulation. IV access is important for a few reasons. First, to get blood for investigation. It's also important here to get a base serum potassium level.
after getting the Bloods for investigation. administering IV fluids say a line and also the administration of insulin slowly is very important. Administration of insulin is important because we want the cells in the body to take up the glucose that is in the blood.
While this is going on, investigations have to be performed. So a big which is arterial blood gas is very important to measure the pH in the blood and this needs to be done regularly. blood, as we mentioned, full blood count you sees for infections and also electrolyte abnormalities of dehydration. Urine analysis is important to check and monitor if there's glucose or ketones and infections. ECG is performed to check for arrhythmias in case of potassium, hyper telomere or hypoglycemia.
So again, monitoring pH, doing regular arterial blood gas is important and also it is important to monitor serum potassium levels. The reason it is important to measure serum potassium levels is insulin is being administered because insulin will actually cause hypo Columbia. If you get hypoglycemia, you can actually trigger an arrhythmia.
Sometimes calcium glucose can be administered to protect the heart from these hypoglycemia-induced arrhythmias. Anyways, monitoring is continuous check pH, and check blood.
After a while, you can switch the fluids to 0.5% site sailing and 5% extras. This is done when blood glucose goes down at least about 14 millimetres per litre.
Let's just read again for diabetic Ketoacidosis from monitoring is essentially monitor blood. Eu sees perform a big to check for pH and monitor urine output and also the changes in urine pH, glucose and ketones.
We hope this article helped you understand diabetic ketoacidosis.
So if you like this information, hopefully, have a little better understanding of diabetic Ketoacidosis. And share this with friends and family or anyone who needs this information and as always, have a wonderful day.
Also read this previous articles
Also read this previous articles