Wednesday, 20 February 2019

Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank


Hello, guys welcome to the fresh article, in this article I will come with diabetes mellitus? so guys let’s get started.

 A quick little Article on diabetes mellitus, you have a better understanding.


Contents

You hear diabetes mellitus all the time, gestational diabetes, pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus , type 1 diabetes mellitus. What is diabetes mellitus? Let's answer all the questions.

Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank , Diabetes mellitus type 1
Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank


First of all, you understand that diabetes mellitus is also called diabetes.

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1. What is diabetes mellitus?


In Diabetes mellitus, your body has trouble moving glucose, which is a type of sugar from your blood into your cells. This leads to high levels of glucose in your blood and not enough of it in yourself. And remember that your cells need glucose as a source of energy. So not letting the glucose enter means that the cells star for energy despite having glucose right on their doorstep.

In general, the body controls how much glucose in the blood relative to how much gets into the cells with two hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin is used to reduce blood glucose levels, and glucagon is used to increase blood glucose levels. Both of these hormones are produced by clusters of cells in the pancreas, called islets of lingering hands.

Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank , what is diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank


1.1 Insulin - glucagon


Insulin is secreted by the beta cells in the centre of the islands, and glucagon is secreted by alpha cells in the periphery of the eyelids. Insulin reduces the amount of coast in the blood by binding the insulin receptors embedded in the cell membrane of various insulin-responsive tissues like muscle cells and adipose tissue. When activated, the insulin receptors cause festivals containing glucose transporter. They're inside the cell to fuse with the cell membrane, allowing glucose to be transported into the cell.


glucagon does exactly the opposite. It raises the blood glucose levels by getting the liver to generate new molecules of glucose from other molecules and also break down glycogen into glucose so that I can all get dumped into the blood Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed and blood glucose levels get too high. And this is seen among 10% of the world population.

If you have not correctly understood what is diabetes mellitus, then read it deep in below.

What is diabetes mellitus


Made Simple when we eat food travels to the stomach Food is made up of three basic nutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, and fats

During digestion, carbohydrates are broken down into sugar, otherwise known as glucose. Here's a quick fact. Carbohydrates include foods such as bread, rice, pasta, potatoes, fruits, milk and. In a normal dive process, sugar travels from the stomach through the bloodstream to your body's muscle and fat cells.

However, sugar can't enter the cells without help. insulin acts like a key unlocking the doors to the muscle and fat cells sugar into the cells being used as sugar as fuel to provide energy for the body. When this process is functioning properly.

Sugar entering the bloodstream from the stomach is able to exit the bloodstream at the muscle and fat cells. In this manner, the body is able to regulate the blood stream. Now let's see what happens in a person with diabetes mellitus.

you're interested bloodstream, but one of two things happens either the pancreas does not produce a sufficient quantity of the sugar. The result is the same cell doors remain closed, causing sugar to get backed up in the bloodstream. As a result, blood sugar

This creates several problems. Because sugars are not able to enter your body cells. Your body is not getting the fuel that needs as a result, you may feel tired or fatigued, your body may try to dilute the excess sugar in them. By pulling fluid out of yourself. It's going to be feeling be hydrated and thirsty Most importantly, over time.

 But understand that diabetes is a cluster of symptoms. You don't just wake up one day with diabetes mellitus. You don't get diabetes from someone who has diabetes mellitus. It's not like this, you know the diabetes is not a virus. you know, diabetes mellitus is symptoms that have been building up for a long time.

These are a cluster of symptoms known broader as metabolic syndrome that will show that you're in trouble, right? It's your check engine light, it's your warning light. Okay, so diabetes is this ubiquitous cluster of symptoms that can lead to more and more diseases, just like a domino effect.

Exposure to high blood sugar levels can cause damage to vital organs connected to the bloodstream, such as your eyes, kidney, herbs, and heart. If not controlled properly. diabetes can lead to serious complications such as blindness, amputation, kidney failure, heart attack, and stroke.

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2. Types of diabetes mellitus


Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank
Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank


There are two types of diabetes mellitus.
 type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. And the main difference between them is the underlying mechanism that causes blood glucose levels to rise. About 10% of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes mellitus and the remaining 90% of people have type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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3. Type 1 diabetes mellitus



So let's start with type 1 diabetes mellitus :

Type One Diabetes mellitus sometimes just called type one diabetes, in this situation, the body doesn't make enough insulin. The reason this happens is that in type one diabetes, there's a type four hypersensitivity response or a cell-mediated immune response where a person's own T cells attack the pancreas. As a quick review, remember that the immune system has T cells that react to all sorts of antigens, which are usually small peptides, poly saccharine or lipids and that some of these antigens are part of our own body cells.

Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank , Diabetes mellitus type 1
Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank


It doesn't make a lot of sense to a lot of T cells that attack our own cells to hang around. And so there's this process to get rid of them called self-tolerance with Type 1 Diabetes mellitus a genetic abnormality causes a loss of self-tolerance among T cells that specifically target the beta cell antigens. Losing self-tolerance means that these T cells are allowed to recruit other immune cells and coordinate an attack on these beta cells.

losing beta Cells means less insulin.  less insulin means that glucose piles up in the blood because it can't enter the body cells. A one really important set of genes involved in the regulation of the immune response is the human leukocyte antigen system or HLA system. Although it's called a system, it's basically this group of jeans on chromosome six that encodes the major histocompatibility complex, or MHC.  which is a protein that's extremely important in helping the immune system recognize foreign molecules as well as maintaining self-tolerance.

MHC is like the serving platter that antigens are presented to immune cells. Interestingly, people with type one diabetes often have specific HLA genes in common with each other one called HLA, Dr Three and another called HLA dr for but this is just a genetic clue, right, because of not everyone with HLA Dr Three and HLA dr for develops diabetes mellitus.

diabetes mellitus type 1 destruction of beta cells you starts early on in life but sometimes up to 90% of the beta cells are destroyed before symptoms crop up.

for clinical symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus that all sounds similar are poly facia, glycol Syria, Polly area and Polly dipsea.

let's go through them one by one even though there's a lot of glucose in the blood it can't get into the cells. which leaves cells to start for energy so in response to adipose tissue starts breaking down a fat called Life policies and muscle tissue starts breaking down proteins both of which results in weight loss for someone with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus this catabolic state leaves people feeling hungry also known as Polly facia. Facia means eating and poly means a lot.

now with high glucose levels, that means that when blood gets filtered through the kidneys some of it starts to spill into the urine called glycol Syria. Glycol or firstly glucose and uria our first of the urine. since glucose is another medically active water tends to follow it resulting in increased urination or poly Yuria. Poly refers to a lot in your uria, again refers to urine.

Finally, because there's so much urination. People with uncontrolled diabetes become dehydrated and thirsty or poly dips.  poly means a lot, and Dipsy. It means thirst.

Even though people with diabetes mellitus aren't able to produce their own insulin, they can still respond to insulin. So treatment involves lifelong insulin therapy to regulate their blood glucose levels and basically enable their sales to use glucose.

One really serious complication with Type One Diabetes mellitus is called diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA.

 to understand it, let's go back to the process of life policies were fats broken down into free fatty acids. After that happens delivered turns the fatty acids into ketone bodies like a pseudo acidic acid and beta hydroxyl Eric acid.

a pseudo citric acid is a keto acid because it has a ketone group and a carboxylic acid group beta hydroxide burtoEric acid. On the other hand, even though it's still one of the ketone bodies isn't technically a keto acid, since its ketone group has been reduced to a hydroxyl group.

These ketone bodies are important because they can be used by sales for energy. But they also increase the acidity of the blood which is why it's called ketoacidosis the blood becoming really acidic can have major effects throughout the body. Patients can develop Cosmo respiration, which is deep and laboured breathing as the body tries to move carbon dioxide out of the blood in an effort to reduce its acidity.

Cells also have a transporter that exchanges hydrogen ions or protons, H plus for potassium. When the blood gets acidic. It's by definition loaded with protons that get sent into the cells while potassium gets sent into the fluid outside the cells.

Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank
Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank


Another thing to keep in mind is that in addition to helping glucose undersells insulin stimulates the sodium-potassium ATP aces, which helped potassium get into cells. And so without insulin, more potassium stays in the fluid outside the cells. Both of these mechanisms lead to increased potassium in the fluid outside the cells. which quickly makes it into the blood and causes hyper Columbia the potassium is then excreted it.

So over time, even though the blood potassium levels remain high overall, stores of potassium in the body. which includes potassium inside cells starts to run low. Patients also have a high and I and gap, which reflects a large difference in the unmeasured negative and positive ions in the serum largely due to this buildup of keto acids.

diabetic ketoacidosis can happen even in people who have already been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and currently have some sort of insulin therapy in states of stress. Like an infection, the body releases epinephrine, which in turn stimulates the release of glucagon. Too much glucagon can tip that Delicate hormonal balance of glucagon and insulin in favour of elevating blood sugars and can lead to the cascade of events.

 we just described increase glucose in the blood loss of glucose in the urine, loss of water dehydration and in parallel and need for alternate energy generation of ketone bodies and ketoacidosis interestingly both ketone bodies break down into acetone, and escape is a gas by getting breathe out the lungs, which gives a sweet fruity smell to a person's breath. In general, though, that's the only sweet thing about this illness, which also causes nausea, vomiting, and if severe enough, mental status changes, and acute cerebral edema.

Treatment of a DKA episode involves giving plenty of fluids which helps with dehydration, insulin, which helps lower blood glucose levels and replacement of electrolytes like potassium, all of which helped to reverse the acidosis.


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4. Type 2 diabetes mellitus


now let's switch gears and talk about type 2 diabetes mellitus .which is where the Makes insulin, but the tissues don't respond as well to it. The exact reason why cells don't respond isn't fully understood. Essentially the body's providing the normal amount of insulin, but the cells don't move their glucose transporter to their membrane and response, which remember, as needed for glucose to get into the cell.

Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank , Diabetes mellitus type 2
Diabetes mellitus - Health articles bank


These cells, therefore, are said to have insulin resistance, some risk factors for insulin resistance, our obesity, lack of exercise, and hypertension, and the exact mechanisms are still being explored. For example, an excess of adipose tissue or fat is thought to cause the release of free fatty acids and so-called adequate kinds which are signalling molecules that can cause inflammation, which seems related to insulin resistance.

However, many people that are obese are not diabetic, so genetic factors probably play a major role as well. We see this when we look at twin studies we're having a twin with type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus completely independent of other environmental risk factors in type two diabetes mellitus, since tissues don't respond as well to normal levels of insulin, the body ends up producing more insulin in order to get the same effect and move glucose out of the blood.

 They do this to beta cell hyperplasia, which is an increased number of beta cells and beta cell hypertrophy, where they actually grow in size, all in this attempt to pump out more insulin. This works for a while, and by keeping insulin levels higher than normal blood glucose levels can be kept normal, called normal guys to see me now, along with insulin.

 beta cells also secrete eyelid amyloid, polypeptide, or Amylin. so while beta cells are cranking out insulin, they also secreted an increased amount of Amylin. Over time, Amylin builds up in aggregates in the islands. This beta cell compensation though isn't sustainable and over time those max out beta cells get exhausted.

 they become dysfunctional and undergo hypertrophy and get smaller. as well as hyperplasia and die off as beta cells are lost and insulin levels decrease glucose levels in the blood start to increase and patients develop hypoglycemia which leads to similar clinical signs that I mentioned before like Polly fascia, glycol Syria, Polly urea and Polly dipsia.

but unlike type one diabetes mellitus , there's generally some circulating insulin and type 2 diabetes mellitus from the beta cells that are trying to compensate for the  insulin resistance. This means that the insulin-glucagon balance is such that diabetic ketoacidosis doesn't usually develop having said that a complication called hyper molar, hyperglycaemic state or HHS is much more common in type 2 diabetes mellitus than in type 1 diabetes mellitus , and it causes increased plasma similarity due to extreme dehydration and concentration of the blood.

To help understand this, remember that glucose is a polar molecule and can't passively diffuse across cell membranes. which means that x is solid. So when levels of glucose are super high in the blood, meaning it's a hyper as Muller state, water begins to leave the body cells and enter the blood vessels.

 This leads to sales relatively dry and shrivelled rather than plump and juicy. blood vessels that are full of water lead to increased urination in total body dehydration. And this is a really serious situation because of the dehydration in the body cells and in particular the brain and cause a number of symptoms including mental status changes.

In HHS, you can sometimes see mild keto anaemia and acidosis, but not to the extent you see it in DKA.  in DKA, you can see some hyper asthma clarity. So there's definitely some overlap between these two syndromes.

besides type one Diabetes mellitus and type two diabetes mellitus. There are also a couple other subtypes of diabetes mellitus. gestational diabetes is when pregnant women have increased blood glucose. Which is particularly during the third trimester, although ultimately unknown, the causes thought to be related to pregnancy hormones that interfere with insolence action on insulin receptors.

Also, sometimes people can develop drug-induced diabetes mellitus. which is where medications have side effects that tend to increase blood glucose levels. The mechanism for both of these is thought to be related to insulin resistance, like type two diabetes mellitus, rather than an autoimmune destruction process. Like in type one diabetes mellitus.


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5.Some tests and Facts of diabetes mellitus


 diagnosing type one or type two diabetes mellitus is done by getting a sense for how much glucose is floating around in the blood and has specific standards that the World Health Organization uses. very commonly, a fasting glucose test is taken where the person doesn't eat or drink except for water. That's okay for eight hours and has their blood tested for glucose levels.

 levels of 100 milligrams per deciliter to 125 milligrams per deciliter indicates pre-diabetes. and 126  milligrams per deciliter or higher indicates diabetes mellitus. A non-fasting or random glucose test can be done at any time, with 200 milligrams per deciliter or higher is a red flag for diabetes mellitus.

Another test is called an oral glucose tolerance test, where a person is giving glucose and then blood samples are taken at time intervals to figure out how well it's been cleared from the blood, the most important interval is two hours later. levels of 140 milligrams per deciliter to 199 milligrams per deciliter indicate pre-diabetes and 200 or above indicates diabetes mellitus.

Another thing to know is that when blood glucose levels get high, the glucose can start to stick to proteins that are floating around in the bladder and cells. So that brings us to another type of tests that can be done. which is the HPA one see test? which test for the proportion of himoglobin and red blood cells that has glucose stuck to it called glycated hemoglobin.

HPA one sea levels of 5.7%-6.4% indicate pre-diabetes. and 6.5% or higher indicates diabetes mellitus. This proportion of glycated hemoglobin doesn't change day to day. So it gets a sense for whether the blood glucose levels have been high over the past two to three months.

Over time, high glucose levels can cause damage to tiny blood vessels called the microvasculature in our materials, a process called Highline arteriosclerosis with the walls of our materials develop. Highline deposits these deposits of proteins and these make them hard and inflexible and capillaries, the basement membrane can thicken and make it hard for oxygen to easily move from the capillaries to the tissues, causing hypoxia.

One of the most significant effects is that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of medium and large arterial wall damage and subsequent atherosclerosis which can lead to heart attacks and strokes major causes of morbidity and mortality for patients with diabetes mellitus.

In the eyes, diabetes mellitus can lead to retinopathy and evidence of that can be seen on a fun discovery exam that shows cotton wool spots or flare haemorrhages and can eventually cause blindness.
in the kidneys, the errands and effect arterial walls, as well as the club, aerialist itself, can get damaged. which can lead to an erotic syndrome that slowly diminishes the kidneys. ability to filter blood over time and can ultimately lead to dialysis.

diabetes mellitus can also affect the function of nerves, causing symptoms like a decrease in sensation in the toes and fingers. sometimes called the stocking-glove distribution as well as causing the autonomic nervous system to malfunction. And that system controls a number of body functions. everything from sweating to passing gas. Finally, both the poor blood supply and nerve damage can lead to ulcers, typically on the feet that don't heal quickly and can get pretty severe and need to be amputated.


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6.complications of diabetes mellitus


These are some of the complications of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. which is why it's So important to prevent, diagnose and control diabetes mellitus. through a healthy lifestyle medications to reduce insulin resistance, and even insulin therapy if beta cells have been exhausted. In fact, many people with diabetes mellitus can control their blood sugar levels really effectively and live a full and active life without any of the complications.


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7. Conclusion


We hope this article helped you understand diabetes mellitus, type 1 Diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus.

So if you like this information, hopefully, have a little better understanding of diabetes mellitus. And share this with friends and family or anyone who needs this information and as always, have a wonderful day.

Thanks for reading. If you're interested in a deeper dive on this topic, take a look at another article of our website health articles bank. where we have Diabetes mellitus related articles, questions and health-related articles. following us on social media.

If you not read my previous articles then click here :

1. What is diabetes mellitus?
2. Diabetes mellitus type 2.
3. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus


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